Ruth Landes Bibliography

Published Works
Unpublished Works
Secondary Bibliography


Published Works by Ruth Landes


1937 Ojibwa Sociology. Doctoral dissertation, Columbia University. New York: Columbia University Press. Reprinted in 1969 by AMS Press. 144p.
1938 The Ojibwa Woman. Introduction by Sally Cole. New York: Columbia University Press. Reprinted in 1971 by W.W. Norton, and in 1997 by University of Nebraska Press. 247p. Notes and research materials for this book are archived in the Ruth Landes Papers, National Anthropological Archives, National Museum of Natural History, Smithsonian Institution, Washington, D.C.
1947 The City of Women. Introduction by Sally Cole. New York: Macmillan. Reprinted in 1994 by University of New Mexico Press. 248p. Notes and research materials for this book are archived in the Ruth Landes Papers, National Anthropological Archives, National Museum of Natural History, Smithsonian Institution, Washington, D.C.
1965a  Culture in American Education: Anthropological Approaches to Minority and Dominant Groups in the Schools. New York: John Wiley & Sons. 330p.
1965b Latin Americans of the Southwest. New York: McGraw-Hill. 104p.
1967 A Cidade das Mulheres. Translated by Maria Lúcia do Eirado Silva. Rio de Janeiro: Civilização Brasileira. Revised edition published in 2002 by Editora Universidade Federal de Rio de Janeiro. 316p. In addition to the Portuguese translation of The City of Women (1947), this volume includes Eirado Silva’s translations of Landes’s articles “A cult matriarchate and male homosexuality” (“Matriarcado cultual e homossexualidade masculina”) (1940a), “Fetish worship in Brazil” (“O culto fetichista no Brasil”) (1940b), and “Negro slavery and female status”  (“Escraridão negra e status feminine”) (1953a).
1968a The Mystic Lake Sioux: Sociology of the Mdewakantonwan Santee. Madison: University of Wisconsin Press. 232p.
1968b    Ojibwa Religion and the Midewiwin. Madison: University of Wisconsin Press. 250p.
1970 The Prairie Potawatomi: Tradition and Ritual in the Twentieth Century. Madison: University of Wisconsin Press. 420p.

Articles and Essays

1937a  “The Ojibwa of Canada.” In Cooperation and Competition among Primitive Peoples. Margaret Mead, ed. New York: McGraw-Hill. pp. 87–127.
1937b “The personality of the Ojibwa.” Culture and Personality 6: 51–60.
1938 “The abnormal among the Ojibwa Indians.” Journal of Abnormal and Social Psychology 33: 14–33.
1940a “A cult matriarchate and male homosexuality.” Journal of Abnormal and Social Psychology 35: 386–397.
1940b “Fetish worship in Brazil.” Journal of American Folklore 53 (210): 261–270.
1943  “Outside looking in: A visitor gives her views on Louisiana’s bayou people.” Louisiana Conservationist 2 (1): 4–6.
1945a “A northerner views the South.” Social Forces 23: 375–379.

1945b  “What about this bureaucracy?” The Nation 161: 365–366.
1950 With Mark Zborowski. “Hypotheses concerning the Eastern European Jewish Family.” Psychiatry 13: 447–464.
1952a “A preliminary statement of a survey of Negro-White relationships in Britain.” Man 52: 133.
1952b  “Race and recognition: Ruth Landes on the attitude of the Negro in Britain.” The Listener 48 (1236): 751, 763.
1953a “Negro slavery and female status.” African Affairs 52 (206): 54–57.
1953b “Relationships of colour.” West Africa 1187: 367–368 (Part 1); 1188: 391–392 (Part 2).

“Biracialism in American society: a comparative view.” American Anthropologist 57 (6): 1253–1263.
1958 “Family patterns of the future.” Child Welfare (November): 19–23.

1959a   “Dakota warfare.” Southwestern Journal of Anthropology 15 (1): 43–52.
1959b   “Minority groups and school social work.” Social Work 4 (3): 91–97.
1959c “The values of the majority culture and the possible resulting bias that would limit the social worker’s service to minority groups.” Proceedings: Workshop on Cultural Factors, October 29–30, 1959, San Diego, California. San Diego Area Recruitment Committee for Minority Adoptive Homes. pp. 64–76.
1963a  “An anthropologist looks at school counseling.” Journal of Counseling Psychology 10 (1): 14–17.
1963b “Cultural factors in counseling.” Journal of General Education 15 (1): 55–67.
1963c “Potawatomi medicine.” Transactions of the Kansas Academy of Science 66 (4): 553–599.
1967a “Os deuses africanos” and “Mães e filhas-de-santo na Bahia.” Translated by Maria Lúcia do Eirado Silva. In Antologia do Negro Brasileiro. Edison Carneiro, ed. Rio de Janeiro: Tecnoprint Gráfica. Reprinted in 2005 by Agir Editora Ltda. Excerpted reprints of “Matriarcado cultual e homossexualidade masculina” and “O culto fetichista no Brasil,” originally published in A Cidade das Mulheres (1967).
1967b “Negro Jews in Harlem.” Jewish Journal of Sociology 9 (2): 175–189.

1970 “A woman anthropologist in Brazil.” In Women in the Field. Peggy Golde, ed. Chicago: Aldine. pp. 119–142.
1973 “Comment.” Western Canadian Journal of Anthropology 3 (3): 44–46. Comment on articles by Margaret Mead and Victor Goldkind concerning field work as an ideology.
1976b “Response.” American Anthropologist 78: 348–349. Response to Herbert Alexander’s review of The Ojibwa Woman (in American Anthropologist 77: 110).
1979 “On The Ojibwa Woman.” Current Anthropology 20 (1): 184–185.
1980 “Foreword.” In Anishinabe: 6 Studies of Modern Chippewa. J. Anthony Paredes, ed. Tallahassee: University of Florida. Pp. vii–viii.
1982 "Comment on ‘Windigo Psychosis: The Anatomy of an Emic-Etic Confusion’ by Lou Marano.” Current Anthropology 23 (4): 401.

Book Reviews

1935 Review of Shadow of the Plantation, by Charles S. Johnson. The Journal of American Folklore 48 (188): 202.
1940 Review of Black Folk: Then and Now, by W. E. B. Dubois. American Anthropologist 42 (3): 505–506.
1952 Review of Navajo Grammar, by Gladys A. Reichard. Man 52: 125.

1954 Review of Les Afro-Américains (no. 27 of Mémoires de l’Institut d’Afrique Noire). African Affairs 53 (211): 167–169.
1959 Review of Minorities in the New World: Six Case Studies, by Charles Wagley and Marvin Harris. American Anthropologist 61 (4): 690–692.

1962 Review of Eskimo Childhood and Interpersonal Relationships: Nunivak Biographies and Genealogies, by Margaret Lantis. American Journal of Orthopsychiatry 75 (4): 1973.

1963 Review of The Southern Case for School Segregation, by J. J. Kilpatrick. Teachers College Record 64 (8): 734–735.

1971 Review of Afro-American Anthropology: Contemporary Perspectives, by John F. Szwed and Norman E. Whitten, Jr. American Anthropologist 73 (6): 1306–1310.

1973a Review of Guests Never Leave Hungry, by James P. Spradley; Native Peoples (vol. 1 of Minority Canadians), by Jean Leonard Elliott; and Recollections of an Assiniboine Chief, ed. by James R. Stevens. Queen's Quarterly 80 (1): 116–118.

1973b Review of The Mexican-American People: The Nation's Second Largest Minority, by Leo Grebler, Ralph C. Guzman, and Joan W. Moore. American Anthropologist 75 (4): 1004–1006.
1974 Review of Seven Arrows, by Hyemeyohsts Storm; The Gold of Ophir, ed. by Edward Dahlberg; and Great Leader of the Ojibway: Mis-quona-queb, by James Redsky. Queen's Quarterly 81 (1): 135–138.
1977 Review of The Prairie People: Continuity and Change in Potawatomi Indian Culture, 16651965 by James A. Clifton. Ethnohistory  24 (3): 304–306.
1984 Review of Ruth Benedict: Patterns of a Life, by Judith S. Modell. American Journal of Orthopsychiatry 54 (2): 348–350.


Unpublished Works by Ruth Landes

The following manuscripts are archived in the Ruth Schlossberg Landes Papers at the National Anthropological Archives, National Museum of Natural History, Smithsonian Institution. Bibliographic data cited below derives solely from Landes’s handwritten notes on manuscript drafts. All available titles, locations, and dates have been included.

Selected lectures and conference papers

1952 “Preliminary Statement on Fulbright-Sponsored Inquiry into Race Relationships in Britain.” Paper presented at the Royal Anthropological Institute, London, May 1952. 10pp.
1958 “Education and Identity.” Paper presented at “Workshops on Teaching and Guidance for Youth in a Free Society,” Claremont Graduate School and University, Claremont, California, June 26, 1958. 13pp.
1959 “Public Welfare Administration.” Presentation in San Mateo, California, May 23, 1959. 6pp.
1961 “Newcomers in Our Midst.” Paper presented at the California State Conference on Health, Welfare, and Recreation, Los Angeles, California, April 16–19, 1961. 6pp.
1963 “An Anthropologist Looks at Women’s Proper Roles.” Paper presented at California State University, Los Angeles, June 15, 1963. 12pp.
1964 “Changing Role of Women in the United States.” Paper presented at Pacific Oaks College, Pasadena, California, May 4, 1964.
1970 “Bilingualism, the Individual and Society.” Paper presented to Afrikaans officials in Cape Town, South Africa. 23pp.
1976 “Ojibwa Lecture on Maggie Wilson.” Paper presented in Thunder Bay, Ontario, July 23, 1976. 14pp.
1978 “The Public Life of Language: Government Regulation and Citizen Response.” Paper presented at Dalhousie University, Nova Scotia. 23pp.
1980 “Women in Anthropology.” Paper presented to the Department of Anthropology, University of Calgary, Alberta.
1993 “Remembering the Ojibwa After 50 Years.” Paper presented at Dartmouth College, New Hampshire. 14p.

Dated papers

1939 “The Ethos of the Negro in the New World: A Research Memorandum". Unpublished research conducted for Gunnar Myrdal's study “The Negro in America”. 62p.
1946 “The Mind of the South.” 11p.
1966 “The Ojibwa and Their Observers.” 14p.
1971 “Nature of Age and Culture.” 17p.

Undated papers organized by subject

n.d. “Personality of the Later-Aging in Different Societies.”
n.d. “Afro-Brazilian cults and New World racism.”
n.d. “Cultural anthropology in teacher education: progress report.”
  Fisk University
n.d. Notes and drafts for a manuscript recounting her experiences as an instructor at Fisk University University in Nashville, Tennessee (1937–1938).
n.d. “Battlegrounds of Tennessee.”
n.d. “A Chronicle of Bloods.”
n.d. “Color Cancer.”

n.d. “Now, at Athens.”
  Race and Ethnicity in the United States of America and Great Britain
n.d. “British Color in Perspective.” Book-length manuscript on race relations in Great Britain.
n.d. “Changing Patterns of the Mexican-American Family.”
n.d. “Color in Britain: A Study of Emerging Biracialism.”
n.d. “Indians in Cities.”
n.d. “Mañana: A Cultural Study in American Liberties.” Book-length manuscript.
n.d. “Police, Minorities, and the Community.”
n.d. “Preliminary Hypothesis about the Mexican-American Family."
  Gender Roles and Family Studies
n.d. “Children and Youth.”
n.d. “Happy Homes and divorce.”
n.d. “Language Movements on Three Continents.”
n.d. “Tongues that Defy the State.” Book-length manuscript on state-sponsored bilingualism in Canada, South Africa, Spain, Switzerland, and the United States of America.
  Life in the Southern United States
n.d. “Gentlemen of the Bayous.”
n.d. “Reform Over the Bayous.”
  The Ojibwa
n.d. “The Magician and the Girl.” Book-length manuscript.
n.d. “The Oedipus in Culture.”


Secondary Bibliography

2005 A Cidade das Mulheres, 35mm, 72min., Casa de Cinema da Bahia: Xfilmes. Lázaro Faria, dir. Documentary on Brazilian candomblé featuring passages from The City of Women (1947).            

COLE, Sally Cooper
1995 “Ruth Landes and the early ethnography of race and gender.” In Women Writing Culture. Ruth Behar and Deborah A. Gordon, eds. University of California Press. p. 166-185.
1997 “Dear Ruth: This is the Story of Maggie Wilson, Ojibwa Ethnologist.” In Great Dames. Elspeth Cameron and Janice Dickin, eds. Toronto: University of Toronto Press. pp. 75–96.
1999 “Pilgrim souls, honorary men, (un)dutiful daughters: sojourners in modernist anthropology.” In Feminist Fields: Ethnographic Insights. Rae Bridgman, Sally Cooper Cole, and Heather Howard-Bobiwash, eds. Ontario, Canada: Broadview Press. pp. 13–32.
2002 “’Mrs. Landes meet Mrs. Benedict’: Culture Pattern and Individual Agency in the 1930s.” American Anthropologist 104 (2): 533–543.
2003 Ruth Landes: A Life in Anthropology. Lincoln: University of Nebraska Press. 287p.

CUNHA, Olívia Maria Gomes da
2004 “Tempo imperfeito: uma etnografia do arquivo.” Mana 10 (2): 287–322. Translated into English by David Allan Rodgers under the title ”Imperfect Tense: An Ethnography of the Archive,” in Mana 1 (2006, special edition): 1–28.

HANDLER, Richard
2006 "Culture and race in the classroom: Jules Henry and Ruth Landes on American education.” In Visionary Observers: Anthropological Inquiry and Education. Jill B. R. Cherneff and Eve Hochwald, eds. Lincoln: University of Nebraska Press. pp. 149–166.

HEALEY, Mark Alan
1996 "Os desencontros da tradição em A Cidade das Mulheres: raça e gênero na etnografia de Ruth Landes” (Mistranslations of tradition in ‘The City of Women’: race and gender in the ethnography of Ruth Landes). Cadernos Pagu 6–7: 153–200.
2000 “The sweet matriarchy of Bahia: Ruth Landes’ ethnography of race and gender.” Dispositio/n 50: 87–116.

1997 “Fatal Errors: Ruth Landes and the Creation of the ‘Automistic Ojibwa.’” Anthropologica 39: 133–145.

PARK, George and Alice
1989 “Ruth Schlossberg Landes.” In Women Anthropologists: Selected Biographies. Ute Gacs, Aisha Khan, Jerrie McIntyre, Ruth Weinberg, eds. Champaign: University of Illinois Press. pp. 208–214.